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"Comprehensive Text Book of
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H.I. Kaplan, M.D.
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of Schizophrenia have fascinated physicians and philosophers for
thousands of years. As early as 1400 B.C., a Hindu fragment from
the Ayur-Veda described a condition
brought on be devils, in which the afflicted is "filthy,
walk naked, has lost memory, and moves in an uneasy manner."
The 1st century
A.D., the physician Aretaeus
of Cappadocia noted the essential qualitative difference
suffering from the then traditional catch-all know as "mania"
and those whom this gifted observer and clinician described as
"stupid, absent and musing" possibly equivalent to the
modern terminology applied to schizophrenics, whom we now describe
as stuporous, preoccupied, and poor contact with reality.
Aretaeus also observed the deterioration of mental faculties and
personality in some of his patients, who may well have been schizophrenics.
Such patients, wrote Aretaeus, "fall into such a degree of
degradation that, plunged into an absolute fatuousness, they forget
themselves, pass the habits of their bodies lose all human dignity."
Similarly, Aretaeus clearly described paranoid syndromes among
those whom he called "melancholics," for example, delusion
of being poisoned, withdrawal, and preoccupation with religion.
in the 2nd century A.D., described delusions of grandeur in patients
who "believe themselves to be God" or who "refuse
to urinate for fear of causing a new deluge". He also gave
careful descriptions of stupor states.
early era of detached clinical interest and earnest attempts at
treatment, the schizophrenic was cloaked for well over 1,000 years
in the shadows of superstition and religious zeal. Countless schizophrenics
judged to be possessed by the devil were burned at the stake or
condemned and confined by society to jails and the unbelievable
conditions of asylums such as Bedlam in England and Bicetre in
France. During this period the schizophrenic was banished from
the public eye and was virtually inaccessible to clinicians or
scientists for study.
afflicts approximately one percent of the world's population,
making it the most common psychosis. Schizophrenia is characterized
by positive and negative symptoms. Fundamental symptoms included
thought disturbance, withdrawal, and difficulties managing affect.
Secondary symptoms included perception disorders (e.g., hallucinations,
grandiosity.) Symptoms may also be non-schizophrenic in nature,
including anxiety, depression, and psychosomatic.
There are five recognized types of schizophrenia: disorganized,
catatonic, paranoid, undifferentiated, and residual. Features
of schizophrenia include its typical onset before the age of 45,
continuous presence of symptoms for six months or more, and deterioration
from a prior level of social and occupational functioning.
- This subtype
of schizophrenia is marked by significant regression to primitive,
uninhibited, and disorganized behavior. Thumb-sucking, howling
like a wolf, temper tantrums, creation of pornographic art and
unreasonably strong cravings to suckle a females breast
are characteristic of this type.
- This subtype
features gross psychomotor disturbances, i.e., stupor, negativism,
mutism, rigidity, excitement, prolonged erection, or posturing.
Frequent fluctuation between these extreme physical states is
common. Schizophrenics of this type can be the most fun for
psychologists to play with. They can be posed like dolls, undressed
while theyre catatonic and then left in a crowded bus
station to regain psychomotor normality, or even substituted
for psychiatrists in therapy sessions. They pay essentially
the same attention to a clients problems as would any
normal psychiatrist or therapist. The social and stimulatory
benefits of the prolonged erection symptom are common knowledge
- More often
than not, this is a misdiagnosed condition of prominent delusions
or auditory hallucinations of persecution or grandeur, accompanied
by a relative preservation of cognitive functioning. In reality,
these are functionally normal individuals who have discovered
the fact that some other individual or organization is conspiring
or acting to torture, murder, or financially disable them, but
are unable to produce legitimate evidence supporting their suspicions.
- This type
was originally designed as a catch-all category for psychiatrists
and psychologists too incompetent to diagnose a schizophrenics
specific type. It is allegedly used when patients do not clearly
fit into any one type, fit into more than one type, or do not
fit into any of the other types. Psychiatrists tend to categorize
schizophrenics as undifferentiated pending the discovery or
creation of new mental disorders to label them with.
Age of Onset of Schizophrenia
- This type
commonly displays emotional bluntness, social withdrawal, illogical
thinking, eccentric behavior, or mild loosening of association.
Elderly people suffering from Alzheimers disease, lepers,
philosophers and Japanese males who have lost face
are characteristic of this type.
|Ayurveda means literally
the 'science (Veda) of longevity', but because of its divine origins
I have entitled this article 'Medicine of the Gods. It was originally
a Hindu medical system and had its beginnings more than two and
half thousand years ago in the sixth century before the present
era (or if you prefer BC.). Ayurveda soon developed outside of the
strictly Hindu community and was taken up and adapted by Buddhists
and other religious groups. It has survived until the present day
and is in fact undergoing a renaissance both in India and throughout
the western world, which sees it as a necessary compliment to the
Ayurveda developed at about the same time as Buddhism and Hinduism
and replaced earlier ideas on disease and Healing that were written
down in religious texts such as the Atharva Veda. Until Ayurveda
came on the scene, disease was usually explained in terms of possession
by various demonic disease entities. This earlier 'system' was
perhaps successful because disease was less frequent. But with
the growth of cities and a more settled way of life, new diseases
arose and as a response a new medical system was needed.
|Aretaeus of Cappadocia:Greek
physician from Cappadocia who practiced in Rome and Alexandria,
led a revival of Hippocrates' teachings, and is thought to have
ranked second only to the father of medicine himself in the application
of keen observation and ethics to the art. In principle he adhered
to the pneumatic school of medicine, which believed that health
was maintained by vital air, or pneuma. Pneumatists
felt that an imbalance of the four humoursblood, phlegm, choler
(yellow bile), and melancholy (black bile)disturbed the pneuma,
a condition indicated by an abnormal pulse. In practice, however,
Aretaeus was an eclectic physician, since he utilized the methods
of several different schools.
After his death he was entirely forgotten until 1554, when two of
his manuscripts, On the Causes and Indications of Acute and Chronic
Diseases (4 vol.) and On the Treatment of Acute and Chronic Diseases
(4 vol.), both written in the Ionic Greek dialect, were discovered.
These works not only include model descriptions of pleurisy, diphtheria,
tetanus, pneumonia, asthma, and epilepsy but also show that he was
the first to distinguish between spinal and cerebral paralyses.
He gave diabetes its name (from the Greek word for siphon,
indicative of the diabetic's intense thirst and excessive emission
of fluids) and rendered the earliest clear account of that disease
fl. 1st-2d cent. AD, Greek physician, probably b. Ephesus. He is
believed to have practiced in Alexandria and in Rome and was an
authority on obstetrics, gynecology, and pediatrics. His treatise
On Midwifery and the Diseases of Women(tr. 1882) remained an influential
work until the 16th cent.